The types of construction projects can be classified broadly by function and source of funding of the construction project, namely:
1. Based on the function:
– Housing construction
– Commercial construction, such as banks, offices, schools etc.
– Constitutional construction , such as hospitals, etc.
– Construction of the heavy and highway.
2. Based on the source of funds:
– Government Funds, which are a generally competitive tender process, must be in accordance with the applicable legislation.
– Private Funds, where the auction process can generally be negotiated and determined by the rules held by the owner with the help of a consultant planner and construction manager.
The construction project is a series of interrelated activities to achieve certain goals (building / construction) within the constraints of time, cost and a certain quality.
The series of activities in the construction project begins with the birth of an idea that comes from the need and proceed with a study of the possibility of its creation (the feasibility study). Furthermore, the initial design (preliminary design), detail design, procurement resources, construction on the site that has been provided and the maintenance of buildings that had been established (maintenance) until the handover of the building to the project owner.
From a series of stages of the construction process, will involve a variety of elements that work together with a common goal so that the project can be run in accordance with the plan. In general, the parties involved in construction projects include project owners, consultants, Contractors, Subcontractors, Employment, Supplier, governments, banks, security.
Construction can be defined as a combination of structural elements and elements nonstructural. In other words, the object of building construction is overall formed on unified structures. Examples include the construction of houses, buildings, bridges, and highways. Wood is a material that is produced from natural resources, is the raw material that is easily processed for goods made in accordance with the wishes and technological advances. Wood derived from plants living in nature which type of tree has a trunk in the form of wood.
There some types of wood produced from trees that can generally be divided into two major categories, namely:
Tree species from the class of broadleaf trees, with the following characteristics:
– Generally, form a large leaf.
– Heading large and rounded
– Occurs fallen leaves
– Growth is slow / old
– Generally not a straight trunk and gnarled
– Generally, have a harder wood.
Tree species from the class of needle leaf trees, with the following characteristics:
– A form of needle-like leaves
– Cone-shaped canopy.
– Generally not shed leaves, but few trees.
– The rapid growth and straight up.
– Generally, have soft wood and light.
In addition to the above differences, other differences are:
– Wooden structures fuller
– Having pores with shape combination which is more complex.
– Examples of types of broadleaf trees, such as Teak, Meranti etc.
Needles Wood Leaves
– Wooden structure more simple
– Has no pores. It has tracheids cells, ie cells with a long tip that small to taper.
– The number of cell types less and network combination is in simple forms.
– The number of tree species that have needles leaves is Pinusatau, Agathis, etc.
Advantages and disadvantages of wood as a building material.
– Many woods in all around the world and can be recycled again with replanted (reforestation).
– Easy to work with and easily shaped according to the needs and the use also a relatively cheap price.
– The strength of wood is quite high and light.
– Resistance to electrical and chemical (except hard material) is high enough / good.
– In certain types of wood have a wonderful texture, so it has decorative point.
– It’s less homogeneous.
– Easily influenced by climate / weather.
– Deflection can occur in a state of high humidity.
– Easily attacked by insects, fungi and marine worms.
– The existence of congenital defects and defects of nature
– Somewhat flammable.
Ideal construction design must meet certain requirements. Among which construction should be strong and durable so it can function as they are designed.
Construction is an activity to make infrastructure and also facilities. In a context of architecture or civil engineering, construction is known as a building or infrastructure unit in an area or in several areas.
Briefly defined as objects overall construction of the building which consists of parts of the structure. For example, construction is the building structure design / wake up the whole of the building structure. Another example: Highway Construction, Bridge Construction, Vessel Construction, and others.
Construction can also be divided as the arrangement of a building (house, bridges, etc.) Construction activity is known as 1 job, but in reality, the construction is an activity unit that consists of several other jobs different. In general activities construction supervised by project managers, design engineers, or project architect. These people work in the office, while the control field is usually left to the project foreman who supervised construction workers, carpenters, masons and others to complete a physical construction.
Buildings are grouped into four groups:
– The building, namely: offices, hospitals, hotels, homes and others.
– Transportation Building, namely: roads, bridges, railroads, terminals, ports, airports, etc.
– Water Building, namely: dams, irrigation canals, drainage channels, for the building, culverts and other.
– Special Building namely offshore platforms, towers high voltage power lines, radio towers, TV and so on.
In general, the construction of buildings must be functional, in terms of shape, size and organisation of the room to meet the needs in accordance with its function, strong and durable, not easily broken in the sense that the maintenance costs become relatively cheap.
Hygienic, in terms of air circulation and light enough, so that the occupants feel comfortable and healthy and also economical, in the sense that there is no wastage of financing to be relatively efficient, and effective. The building also has to look beautiful and pleasing to the eye.